Patents that have improved humanity on a large scale, or have the ability to in the future.
There you have it, the most significant patents. If I forgot something, let me know!
I questioned including Goddard and von Braun as their work was largely used for war, but the scale in which they can still improve humanity, for example, by making us inter-planetary, outweighs their history. That same technology can deliver raw materials from asteroids, ending child and slave labor in the raw material supply chain, among other things.